Food Science & Technology

Finger millet a-amylases degrade cereal starches and flours

Purified a-amylases from ragi malt (designated as a-1(b), a-2 and a-3), are found to be completely inactivated below pH 4.0 but found to be comparatively more stable in alkaline pH. These iso-enzymes are inactivated around 70OC. CaCl2 (5-7 mM) enhances their thermal stability and also found to be an activator. On the other hand citric and oxalic acids inhibit these enzymes completely between 10 and 12.5 mm concentrations, respectively. EDTA is a competitive inhibitor of these enzymes at micro molar concentrations and inhibition is temperature dependent. CFTRI, on the basis of detailed studies, prepared various malto-oligosaccharides which can be used as fat substitutes. Ragi malt a - amylases have high specific activity and can be utilized in both bread making and brewing industries as cost-effective substitutes for barley malts.

Beneficial effects of dietary fiber and butyric acid on diabetes and diabetic nephropathy state

CFTRI has carried out a comprehensive study on the effect of dietary fibre (DF) and butyric acid (BA) on diabetes and changes in heparan sulfate. Both wheat bran and guar gum ameliorated diabetic status to a considerable extent. Glycosaminoglycans were isolated from kidneys of different groups and the profile of uronic acids, total sugars, amino sugars and sulfates has been studied. The content of sulfate decreased during diabetes and is ameliorated by DF. Activities of some of the renal enzymes involved in glycoconjugate metabolism - GFAT, ß-glucuronidase, and glucosaminidase are examined. The increased activity of these enzymes is prevented by these dietary fibres. CFTRI studies demonstrates that dietary fibres and its fermentation product butyric acid are beneficial in improving diabetic status and minimizing the complications of diabetic nephropathy state with particular emphasis on heparan sulfate. Such studies help in developing foods for diabetic patients.

Agarose gel electrophoresis of glycosaminoglycans isolated from kidney.ane1 Standard chondroitin sulfate C, Lane 2 Starch fed control, Lane 3 Starch fed diabetic, Lane 4 Bran fed control, Lane 5 Bran fed diabetic, Lane 6 Guar gum fed control, Lane 7 Guar gum fed diabetic, Lane 8 Dye

Oryzanol extraction from rice bran oil soapstock

A simple and cost effective process for isolation of oryzanol has been developed by CFTRI. Conventional saponification process is carried out at elevated temperature and for longer duration. The present process is employed at lower temperature and for shorter duration with efficient removal of targeted impurities. The degradation of oryzanol is also minimal and hence the process is simple and easy to scale up with reduction of number and scale of unit operations involved in the overall process. The technology has been patented.

Blending of oils to enhance nutritional value of edible oils

Naturally occurring edible oils are not wholesome in terms of balanced fatty acid composition and in minor constituents, which have independent health benefits. Efforts have been put towards developing combinations of vegetable oils to provide fatty acid composition in the ratio of approximately 1:1:1 and 1:2:1 for saturated: monounsaturated:: polyunsaturated fatty acids for meeting the needs of health conscious individuals. Combinations have been chosen to provide desired levels minor constituents to act as nutraceuticals. Various oils containing essential fatty acids of w6 and w3 series have been chosen as base oils and blended in appropriate ratios with oils like rice bran oil, red palm oil and sesame oil to provide nutraceuticals like oryzanol, b-carotene, tocotrienols, sesamin and sesamolin. After ascertaining quality parameters as well as desired levels of fatty acid composition, six combinations of oils have been selected for large-scale trials. An enriched fraction of b-carotene, to be used as nutraceutical, has been extracted from red palm oil, a rich source, with organic solvents of different polarities.

In order to obtain an oil combination, which not only provides health benefits but also, suitable for use in frying dishes, combinations of oils were prepared at CFTRI. Combination of palm oil or mustard oil along with rice bran oil and sesame oil provided a stable frying oil. Combination of groundnut oil with rice bran oil or red palm oil provided good rheological stability.

Preparation of nutraceutically enriched traditional candy

India is endowed with a variety of natural ingredients rich in nutraceuticals. In the current study, spices/herbs like ginger and cumin are taken as ingredients to prepare candy based on jaggery. Ginger and cumin are reported to have health benefits. Ginger and cumin in the form of oleoresin as well as a whole spice are used in product preparation. Along with these nutrients, vitamin-C is also incorporated in the product. In addition, jaggery also contributes some micro-nutrients. The product prepared with ginger alone is found to be pungent. On the other hand, the product prepared with ginger and cumin is found to have balanced taste and the proportions of these two are standardized to obtain a product with good acceptability.

CFTRI has standardized the process to retain the natural nutrients present in these raw materials. Also, the product was prepared using black cumin in place of normal cumin (jeera), as black cumin is reported to be nutritionally better than normal jeera. However, the products with black cumin have lower sensory scores compared to that of normal jeera.

Natural food additives from forest produces

The roots of Decalepis hamiltonii and Hemidesmus indicus are aromatic and have the characteristic nature of possessing the crystalline compound 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde as the major compound in their volatile oils. D. hamiltoni root volatiles possess antimicrobial and insecticidal properties. On steam distillation the fresh fleshy roots yielded a volatile oil (0.68%) from which 2-hydroxy – 4-methoxybenzaldehyde crystallized out. GC-MS analysis of the oil shows, the added presence of benzaldehyde, salicylaldehyde, methyl salicylate, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, ethyl salicylate, a p-anisaldehyde, and vanillin – minor but olfactorily and biologically significant components.

A new process for egg yolk antibodies against an insect specific protein

Insect infestation in stored grains is a universal phenomenon that causes loss to food grain to the tune of 20-30% both in terms of quality and quantity. The method of separating the insect and grain through visual examination is not a very efficient one. CFTRI has developed a process for the production of egg yolk antibodies which have high titer, consistent quality of antibody, easy to produce and non-invasive for an insect specific protein. This is very practical, economical and advantageous, as it gives high yield of antibody (165 mg of antibody/egg). The production of the titer of the antibody remains high for a longer period of time (almost 60 days), thereby providing a continuous supply of consistent quality of antibody.

Nutrient dense food for infants and children

Weaning stage (6 months to 3 years) is very important in the growth of a child. During this stage the growth of child is very rapid and the child changes his/her nutritional needs from milk to semisolid diet. Besides, the growth of important vital organs is almost complete during this stage. In view of this, providing adequate nutrition with an acceptable food of proper texture is highly desirable. Such food mainly contains pre-gelatinized starch, which absorbs more water and becomes bulky. This high bulk limits the nutrient content of the food per unit feed and this is a major constraint for intake of requisite quantity of energy and protein by younger children. CFTRI has solved this problem by incorporating amylase rich flour particularly from finger millet. A small quantity of malt flour (about 5%) could be mixed with high bulk foods prepared by popping, roller drying or extrusion cooking. By this approach their texture, nutrient density and also bioavailability of the major and minor food constituents could be improved.

Natural food colors, antioxidants from spent coffee, microbial degradation of caffeine, low grade tea

Natural food colors find a wide variety of uses in food and non-food applications like pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. The major problem encountered with the natural colors is their instability to light. CFTRI has solved this problem by optimizing the use of antioxidants.

The generation of spent coffee in soluble coffee manufacturing industry is enormous in quantity and hence the need to utilize it. Spent coffee contains phenolics and chlorogenic acid which when isolated will serve as good antioxidants. The biotechnological process for degradation of caffeine uses simple substrates for the growth of the microorganisms and simple extraction procedures for the enzyme. The enzyme after immobilization and stabilization can be reused with no change in the final product. The process is safe, eco-friendly and cost effective.

1.5.2 HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT



CFTRI


M.Sc. FOOD TECHNOLOGY

Duration: 2 Years


The uniqueness of the course is in the fact that the R&D scientists of the various departments of CFTRI impart the training in specialized areas of Food Science and Technology using the state-of-art facilities of the institute.

CERTIFICATE COURSE IN MILLING TECHNOLOGY


Duration: 12 months


This course is the only one of its kind not only in India but also in whole Asia for the formal training in Flour Milling Technology.


Training of students from other universities and colleges


Duration: 4 weeks to one year


The students from different colleges and Universities are trained in the various frontier areas of food science and technology

1.5.3 RECOGNITION & AWARDS

Padma Shri for distinguished services,
Fellowship of Royal Society of Chemistry (ERSC), UK,
Kashalkar Memorial Award for 2002 by All India Food Processors’ Association
Fellowship of Royal Society of Chemistry (ESRC), UK
Dr. V. Prakash, CFTRI
APSI Young Scientist Award and Gold Medal –2002 of Academy of Plant Sciences, India
Fellowship of Academy of Plant Sciences, India
Dr. P. Giridhar , CFTRI
National Technology Day Award by DST Dr. S. Rajarathnam, CFTRI
National Technology Day Award by DBT Dr. G.A. Ravishankar, CFTRI
PB Rama Rao Memorial Award for 2003 excellent contributions to Biomedical Sciences by Society of Biological Chemists (India), Bangalore Dr. K. Srinivasan, CFTRI
Fellowship of the Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India), Mysore Dr. S. Divakar, Dr. N.G. Malleshi, CFTRI