1.6.1 SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & SERVICE
Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL) — Ayurveda
Inclusion of 200 Subgroups on Medicinal Plants in IPC
The concepts of Traditional Knowledge Resource Classification (TKRC) were presented to the experts of International Patent Classification (IPC) Union. The novelty of the classification scheme was well recognised by these experts and the IPC Union constituted a Task Force to further study the possibility of linking and/or integrating TKRC developed by India with IPC. Task Force consisting of United States Patent Office, European Patent Office, China, Japan and India recognised the need of having a more detailed level of classifications relating to medicinal plants and has created approx. 200 subgroups for the classification of medicinal plants in IPC (under a new Group A61K 36/00) instead of the existing single sub-group (A61K 35/78). These will be included in the next edition of IPC to be published in July 2005. It has also been recommended by the IPU Union that the TKRC developed by India and other countries may be linked to the IPC.
Release of CD containing a sample of 500 Ayurveda formulations
A CD containing a sample of 500 Ayurveda formulations was released by Hon’ble Minister of Science and Technology, Human Resources Development and Ocean Development, Prof. Murli Manohar Joshi in a function held at NISCAIR on 23rd October, 2003. Hon’ble Minister of Health and Family Welfare and Parliamentary Affairs, Smt. Sushma Swaraj presided over the function. Present on this occasion were Dr. R.A. Mashelkar, FRS, DG-CSIR, Mrs. Malti S. Sinha, the then Secretary, Department of AYUSH, Mrs. Shailaja Chandra, Chief Secretary, Delhi, besides other dignitaries who attended the function.
TKDL has become a model for other countries for protecting their traditional knowledge from misappropriation. A five-member team from South Africa led by Ms. L. Thahane, Dy. Director General, Department of Science & Technology visited NISCAIR in first week of December. Both the organizations have agreed to collaborate in this area for mutual benefits.
Hon’ble Minister of Science and Technology, Human Resources Development and Ocean Development, Prof. Murli Manohar Joshi releasing CD of ayurveda formulations
Wireless information society
NISTADS has studied the competition between mobile and fixed telephony for the market share of the subscriber base as well as the revenue earned. Global trends pertaining to the growth of the Wireless Information Society (WIS) were analysed with the help of mathematical models. Future projections have been made for the subscriber base as well as the revenue earned from mobiles and fixed telephones. The study predicts that mobile telephones, equipped with latest communication technology, are likely to be in an advantageous position vis-à-vis fixed telephones and are likely to replace them in the near future. Similarly, revenue generated from mobile sets will be more than that by the fixed telephony. Further, with the technological advances in the field, mobile Internet services will enhance the adoption of mobiles in the society and it is estimated that in the near future more than fifty percent transactions will take the mobile route. It is visualised that there would be more economies with mobiles than that with fixed lines in the near future and it will become the trendsetter for the coming generations.
Software for Poly-olefin reactor simulator
Gas phase polymerization of olefins is one of the most widely accepted and commercially used processes for manufacturing of poly-olefins. In this process small catalyst particles (20 - 80 /-mm) react with the incoming fluidizing gas to form a broad distribution (100 - 5000 /-mm) of polymer particles. NCL has developed a mathematical model for simulating fluidized bed polyolefin reactors. Unlike available models, this new model is capable of predicting both polymer properties as well as particle size distribution of the product.
The model is based on generalized mixing cell framework. It has the flexibility of specifying the degree of mixing in each (gas/solid) phase. For each mixing cell, dynamic balance equations are written for each component. This dynamic model is coupled with steady state particle population balance model in order to predict the particle size distribution. The model incorporates rigorous Ziegler-Natta type multi-site multi-monomer kinetic scheme. The model is capable of predicting the effects of operating conditions such as superficial gas velocity, temperature, pressure and catalyst feed rate on polymer properties and particle size distribution (PSD) of the product stream.
The Software, PoRE (Poly-olefin REactor simulator) incorporates the mathematical model to simulate transient and steady state behaviour of fluidized bed polyolefin reactors. PoRE consists of a kernel and different modules for input, kinetics, output, hydrodynamics, model equations, PSD equations and output. A databank of available hydrodynamic correlations for fluidized beds is incorporated in the hydrodynamics module. Due to its modular design, PoRE can be easily configured to simulate any fluidized bed poly-olefin reactor.
Energy scenario in India and other developing countries
Energy consumption in any country is directly linked to its industrialization, economic strength and the life-style of its citizens. Although, energy consumption in India has increased several folds in the post independence era, its per capita average energy consumption level is far below that of comparably large developing economies like China and Brazil. During the last sixty years, India, China and Brazil have all made progress in exploitation of their vast natural potential of energy sources, both from fossil fuels and new and renewable sources but still these three countries are way behind the global average in per capita consumption of energy.
NISTADS in its study has attempted to analyze the experience of the three largest developing countries in the world by land area, namely, China, Brazil and India, in energy exploitation. Various limitations of fossil fuels including their adverse effect on the environment and biodiversity have also been discussed. Against this background, a viable energy scenario for India has been developed, which places paramount importance on self-sufficiency and energy security.
The study discusses the need to develop self-sustaining units of energy, based on local inexhaustible sources, which are available in abundance in our country. This requires emphasis on harnessing solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, etc., which are reliable, plentiful and environmentally friendly. Energy from these sources does not affect biodiversity, marine life and there is no emission of green house gases. As regards transportation fuel, in the long run, it may become necessary to adopt synthetic fuels in place of fossil fuels such as Hydrogen and Fuel cells.
Evaluation of design and technology upgradation scheme for handicrafts
NISTADS, on instance of Ministry of Textiles (GOI) studied and evaluated the impact of the design and technology upgradation scheme on income enhancement of the artisans, creation of additional employment, increasing exports of handicrafts, and in building the capacity of the artisans in terms of design and technological upgradation, infrastructure creation, etc. The overall findings are that the scheme contributed significantly to the creation of additional employment, boosting exports and domestic product, and in training the artisans for better designs and in the use of improved techniques. It is imperative to note that a further boost in the sector can be given only if greater marketing linkages are provided to the artisans, if a spurt is given in producing professional designers in much greater number, and if common facility Centres with modern machines and tools & processing raw material are established and made accessible to the artisans.
Comparative study on internet diffusion between India and China
NISTADS has undertaken study to highlight the Internet diffusion patterns in India and China. The major portion of the study is the effort being carried out in the diffusion of Internet in the national economies, the problems being faced, how these two countries are tackling these problems. There is a comparison of future potential of Internet growth in the two countries taking into considerations factors like- number of users, with characteristics and bandwidth availability. The study also tries to look into the factors responsible for the difference in situation in two countries and discusses relative advantages and disadvantages of each country. It concludes with the policy suggestions about what India should do in order to increase Internet penetration.
Journal outreach programme
NISCAIR has been making a major contribution to Indian science by publishing around nineteen journals covering all the major disciplines of science. A special programme called journal outreach programme was launched not only to maximize the reach of NISCAIR journals but also to increase subscription base and to promote sales.
Through this programme, the subscribers lost over the five years were identified and contacted with a view to win them over, by providing value-added products in future.
NISCAIR have also made efforts to get new potential subscribers both at national and international level. The impact of the programme is already visible through the facts:
a. There has been a considerable increase (29%) in circulation figures of journals during January – December 2003 (9053) as against 6993 in same period of last year
b. Total subscription increased to Rs.77 lakhs
CSIR Electronic Journals Consortium
The CSIR e-Journals Consortium is a Tenth Five-Year Plan project which aims at providing electronic access to nearly 4,500 worldwide S&T periodicals. In June 2002, CSIR entered into an agreement with M/s. Elsevier Science, one of the largest publishers of S&T e-journals for having access to its 1,700 S&T journals among all the laboratories/units/centres of CSIR. NISCAIR (erstwhile INSDOC) is the implementing agency for CSIR e-Journals Consortia by the CSIR.
During the second year of operation of the CSIR e-Journals Consortium, the major activity was to monitor the use of the facility and promote usage among the CSIR laboratories. NISCAIR’s continued efforts have enabled significant increase in the usage of e-Journals by CSIR laboratories. There has been 700% increase in usage from July 2002 to October 2003. The total downloads by the laboratories were 11,266 in July 2002 which increased to 90,104 downloads in October 2003.
Popularization of science among the masses is a major programme of NISCAIR. For the purpose of spreading awareness about scientific developments and creating a scientific temper among current generation of youth, the Institute publishes three well-circulated popular science journals, Science Reporter (English monthly), Vigyan Pragati (Hindi monthly), and Science ki Duniya (Urdu quarterly) apart from a number of popular science books. The Institute also focuses on the R&D activities of CSIR labs through its newsletters—CSIR News and CSIR Samachar.
The Institute has brought out more than 60 popular books in English under different series, viz. CSIR Golden Jubilee Series (25), Sci-Fun Series (7), Q-Series (3), Vistas in Biotechnology Series (10) Foundations of Biotechnology Series (6), Others (9), and the encyclopaedic publication Golden Treasury of Science & Technology. Also, 28 books have been brought out in Hindi. All the popular books of NISCAIR have been very well received and several of them had to be reprinted 2-3 times to meet the demand.
The publications brought out by NISCAIR during April 2003 and March 2004 are:
- A book “Frontier Science and Cutting Edge Technologies—The Road Ahead”, was brought out on the occasion of the 90th Session of the Indian Science Congress held at Bangalore during 3-7 January 2003. The book contained overviews of the various sessions as well as interviews of eminent scientists conducted by NISCAIR scientists.
- NISCAIR has brought a popular science book “Networks Everywhere”.
Science Reporter, one of the oldest English language popular science monthlies published in India, entered into its 41st year of publication in 2004. The magazine enjoys a wide readership throughout the country. Science Reporter continued with its objective of providing to its readers topical coverage of issues in various fields such as information technology, wildlife, environment, space, nuclear technology, health, and biotechnology as well as light reading material such as humour, amazing scientific facts, profiles of scientists, science projects, inventions and discoveries and much more.
Vigyan Pragati is a monthly popular science magazine in Hindi that reaches far and wide in the country. Running in its 53rd year, Vigyan Pragati endeavours to introduce its readers to the important current events/issues in an easy to understand manner. The major issues covered during the year are: Solar Energy, Photonic Crystals, Rare Coins, Indian Roads, Gharat—A Rural Technology (April 03 issue); Petroleum, Diatoms, Coronary Heart Disease (May 03 issue); Chemical & Biological Pollution, Snake, Smokeless Burner (June 03, special issue on Environment); Rose Geranium, Aerosols, Pollution in Sky, Biotechnology (July 03 issue); Mountains, M to M Systems, Mystery of Sunshine, Nutrition (Aug. 03 issue); Aeroplanes affected from Volcanoes, Pollution in Space, Chlorophyll, Mathematical Entertainment, Indian Space Programme (September 03 issue); Endangered Wild Animals, Animalarium (October 03, special issue on Animal Welfare Day); Memorable Moments of Space Visits, Solar System, Inset-3E (Nov. 03 issue); Traditional Knowledge Digital Library, Immunity and Traditional Spices, AIDS, Traditional Crops of Medicinal Values (December 03 issue); Traditional Seeds, DNA Vaccine, Life on Mars, Nanotechnology, Hydrogen as Fuel, Digital Divide, Data Outsourcing, Cactus, Object Monitor (January 04 issue). In addition to all the above, Science Quizes were included issue wise on different topics as also Pratiyogion Ke Liye. Large number of articles pertaining to issues on health and medicine received appreciation from the readers as reflected by the letters received from time to time. Under the Outreach Programme schools were visited and contacts developed with the science teachers.
Science-ki-Duniya, the quarterly popular science magazine in Urdu, reaches far and wide across the country. One of the most widely read Urdu magazines in the country, it has now entered into its 30th year. During 2003-2004 Science-Ki-Duniya continued to disseminate information on current scientific topics in very easy and attractive manner.
(April-June 2003), Hawai jahaz ki urane kae sau sal--aek jaeza (July-September 2003), Duniya ki Khoobsurat Jheelain aur mahaulyat (October–December 2003). October-December issue was also a special Issue on children containing a number of articles for children like robot doctor ka bharosemand sathi, pai ki kahani (Math Corner), Beaver aek hoshyiar engineer, Namaloom Duniya ki makhlooq (Science Fiction). The forthcoming issue covers story on Biotechnology -- taraqqi ka aham zaria, and the other major article is on Traditional knowledge aur hamara mustaqbil.
Besides these, regular columns on science model, science quiz, miracles and science, science for children and women, health, biography, science news, crime and science, scientific terminology, book reviews, cartoon and science fiction are also being published.
CSIR News, the fortnightly newsletter of Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (ISSN 0409-7467) is intended to serve as a useful link among the various CSIR establishments and to communicate activities/accomplishments of the Council to other R&D organizations, universities, S&T agencies/departments, industry and other users, mass media, etc. It also disseminates information on CSIR to other countries through Indian missions abroad and foreign missions in India.
The 24 issues brought out during 2003-2004 covered news pertaining to R&D accomplishments, technology transfers, marketing, commercialization/utilization, sponsorships, collaborations, IPR, etc. Also covered were new facilities, important conferences, seminars, workshops, training programmes; important events such as foundation day celebrations, lectures, appointment of directors, announcements regarding forthcoming events, etc. Contributions of S.S. Bhatnagar Prize-winners are also published.
The 30 July 2003 issue was a special issue on presentation of Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prizes for 2002 by Hon’ble Prime Minister Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee. The issue published speeches delivered on the occasion by Shri Vajpayee, and Dr. Murli Manohar Joshi, Hon’ble Union Minister for HRD, S&T and Ocean Development.
The 15 & 30 October issue was a special issue on CSIR Diamond Jubilee Concluding Function, and release of CD on TKDL Ayurveda by Prof. Murli Manohar Joshi. The article on TKDL CD release function also covered the speeches delivered by Dr. Joshi the Chief Guest, and Smt Sushma Swaraj, Minister for Health & Family Welfare and Parliamentary Affairs, who presided over the function.
Launched in 1984, CSIR Samachar is now in its 21st year. It is a monthly news bulletin in Hindi, which covers the R&D activities of all the laboratories of CSIR and consequently serves as a useful link. It also disseminates information on various activities of CSIR.
November and December ‘03 issues of CSIR Samachar exclusively covered the closing of CSIR Diamond Jubilee celebrations and release of TKDL CD on Ayurveda. It also included the awards instituted by CSIR, especially Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Award; Technology Award; Young Scientist Award etc.
Raw Materials Herbarium and Museum (RHMD)
The Herbarium and Museum of Economic Raw Materials was set up in 1978 and the acronym RHMD (Raw Materials Herbarium & Museum, Delhi) was allotted to it by the International Association of Plant Taxonomy, New York in 1984. RHMD houses authentic samples of economically important raw materials of plant, animal and mineral origin of India as a whole, in one place, to cater to the needs of scientists, researchers, industries, students and the public. Presently, it holds 6226 plant specimen; 190 zoological specimen; 207 mineral; and 1600 carpological samples (crude drugs, roots, seeds, bark wood, etc.). The activities of collection, preservation and identification of herbarium specimen and samples to make the herbarium more comprehensive are being continued. The RHMD also acts as a repository of photographs, illustrations and transparencies of economic raw materials. This facility is being used for reproduction of photographs and slides for publication and presentations by NISCAIR staff and also by outsiders against payment. The RHMD presently has 3550 such photographs and 700 negatives.
Wealth of India
Launched in 1942, The Wealth of India ― Raw Materials, is an encyclopaedic publication describing the plant, animal and mineral resources of India. It is acclaimed as a reference standard for information on raw materials of India, particularly in the current global trend to incorporate traditional knowledge systems into the proprietary mainstream. Policy-planners use the information to prevent bio-piracy. It has in the recent past, played a major role in India’s claim for priority in the US patent case on turmeric.
The A to Z entries of raw materials were covered in 11 volumes (along with two supplements). The initial volumes of the series were taken up for revision and enlargement. A total of three volumes (plus a supplement) of the revised series were published during 1985-1992 covering entries from A to Ci. At this stage, it was decided to go digital and three CD-ROMs were brought out during 1996-1997. All the printed volumes on raw materials went into the first disc while updated information was incorporated in the other two. But CD not being a substitute for the book, particularly for the Indian readership, all the information collected for CD updates, suitably augmented and modified, is being processed to print supplements to the Wealth of India ― - Raw Materials Series.
1.6.2 HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
- SAARC Documentation Centre(SDC)
- 9th Meeting of the Governing Board of SDC
- Collection Development
- Training Courses
- Short Term Courses on Information technology for information management
- Attachment Training Programmes on Information Management is organized for a period of 3 months.
- Long Term Course
- Associateship in Information Science Course
- Workshop on Library Automation
NISCAIR organises several HRD programmes to train and prepare information, documentation and science communication professionals in meeting the challenges of the changing IT scenario. The following academic and training programmes in the field of information science and technology are conducted.
The SAARC Documentation Centre (SDC), set up at NISCAIR (erstwhile INSDOC) for exchanging information among SAARC Member Countries, has been functioning since January 1994. During 2003-04, following activities have been carried out by the Centre:
The decisions of the 9th meeting includes approval of programmes and budget for 2004, conducting of workshop for traditional knowledge experts, workshop on library automation in Maldives, enhancement of linkages between SDC and Member States of SAARC and need for recruitment of full time professionals for SDC.
SDC has a modest collection of reports and documents produced in the region. The Centre has acquired over 600 monographs this year which include reports of various international organizations.
A major activity of the Centre has been to impart training to the library and information professionals in the Member States. The emphasis of all training programmes is effective utilization of information technology in library and information science. The training programmes conducted during this year were