1982 Agrawal, Girish Saran (DOB: 7 July 1946), Sp: Quantum optics; Non-linear optics; Statistical mechanics; Surface optics. Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad - 380 009. Tel (079) 6568550, 6462129 (O), 6561527 (R), Fax 6420374, 6560502. Email : gsa @

Citation Prof. Agarwal’s work in optics and the master equation approach for laser theory have attracted international attention. His recent major contributions are in respect of the effect of temporal laser fluctuations on resonance fluorescence, theory of optical bistability, strong field effects on resonant Raman scattering and light scattering from rough surfaces. He has also contributed significantly to the quantum theory of optical Hanle Effect, subnatural line-width spectroscopy and to the theory of phase transitions in systems far from equilibrium.

1995 Barma, Mustansir (DOB: 27 December 1950), Sp: Statistical physics and condensed matter physics. Theoretical Physics Group, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai - 400 005. Tel (022) 2152971 Extn 2425 (O), 2021154 (R), Fax 2152110, Email : barma @

Citation Dr Barma has made outstanding contributions to the physics of stochastic deposition-evaporation phenomena and disordered non-equilibrium systems.

1990 Baskaran, Ganapathy (DOB: 22 August 1948), Sp: Theoretical condensed matter physics; Magnetism; Strongly correlated electron systems; Statistical mechanics & quantum field theory; Science of complexity. Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai - 600 113. Tel (044) 2351856, 2351281 (O), 4927304 (R), Fax 2350586, Email : baskaran @

Citation Prof. Baskaran has done significant work on the development of the resonating valence bond (RVB) theory of high temperature superconductivity in strongly correlated electron systems. His reformulation of RVB as a local gauge theory has opened new directions in this field. Of his other wide ranging contributions to condensed matter physics, the most notable have been on fractional quantum Hall effect and the optimization problem.

1997 Chakrabarti, Bikas Kanta (DOB: 14 December 1952), Sp: Condensed matter statistical physics. Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Calcutta - 700 064. Tel (033) 3375345-9(O), 3509377 (R), Fax 3374637, Email : bikas @

Citation Dr Chakrabarti has made outstanding contributions to the current understanding of the physics of the dielectric breakdown and fracture phenomena in the disordered solids, quantum Ising glass models, and dynamic phase transitions in the Ising systems.

1972 Chandrasekhar, Sivaramakrishna (DOB: 6 August 1930), Sp: Liquid crystals & condensed matter; Optics and X-ray diffraction. Centre for Liquid Crystal Research, P.B. No. 1329, Bangalore - 560 013. Tel (080) 8382924 (O), 3417123 (R), Fax 8382044, Email : uclcr @

Citation Prof. Chandrasekhar’s major contributions lie in the field of crystallography, especially in the field of liquid crystals. He has proposed a new type of quadratic formula for the optical rotary dispersion of crystals which proved to be a great improvement over the formula that had been in vogue. He has proposed and developed a method for estimating extinction effects experimentally in crystal analysis by the use of polarized X-rays.

1975 Chopra, Kasturi Lal (DOB: 31 July 1933), Sp: Solid state physics & technology of thin films; Amorphous semiconductors; Surface science and techniques; Solar cells;Selective surfaces. Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi - 110 016. Tel 6857645, 6861977 Extn 7304 (O), 5154114 (R), Fax 6851169, 6862037, 6855227, Email : klchopra @

Citation Prof. Chopra’s work has been related to gaining an understanding of the structure and growth of thin films, and the electron transport processes, in crystalline and amorphous films of metals and semiconductors, with particular emphasis on the effect of geometrical scattering, structural defects, and spatial and electronic disorders. He has developed novel techniques for growing thin films with special properties and useful industrial applications.

1984 Cowsik, Ramanath (DOB: 29 August 1940), Sp: High energy astrophysics; Neutrinos; Dark matter; Elementary particles; Experimental gravitation; cosmology. Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Sarjapur Road, Bangalore - 560 034. Tel (080) 5530583, 5530672 (O), 6650784, 6636626 (R), Fax 5534019, Email : cowsik @

Citation Prof. Cowsik has done significant work in theoretical astrophysics. He obtained useful bounds on important particle physics parameters such as neutrino masses and their radiative decays by means of cosmological considerations. He has also worked on the theory of cosmic ray propagation.

1998 Das, Sumit Ranjan (DOB: 11 December 1955), Sp: Theoretical high energy physics. Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai - 400 005. Tel (022) 2152971 Extn. 2423 (O), 2151406 (R) Fax 2152110, Email : das @

Citation Dr Das has made landmark contributions to string theory. He showed that for a special class of black holes a microscopic calculation in string theory reproduces not only the black hole entropy but also the exact expression for the Hawking radiation thus going a long way towards resolving the Information Paradox associated with Black Holes.

1991 Dhar, Deepak (DOB: 30 October 1951), Sp: Theoretical statistical mechanics. Theoretical Physics Group, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Raod, Colaba, Mumbai - 400 005. Tel (022) 2152971 Extn 2427 (O), 2186835 (R), Fax 2152110, Email : ddhar @

Citation Dr Dhar has made contributions to theoretical understanding of statistical mechanics and kinetics on random lattices. His highly original researches have led to several insightful and exact results on fractals, directed lattice-animals directed percolation, and on self-organized criticality.

1979 hatak, Ajoy Kumar (DOB : 9 November 1939), Sp: Fiber and integrated optics. Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi - 110 016. Fax 6862037

Citation Prof. Ghatak has done significant work in the field of inhomogeneous optical wave-guides, theory of aberrations for optical systems comprising inhomogeneous media and self-focussing of laser beams. His earlier contributions to neutron transport theory have attracted considerable attention.

1993 Gopal, Krishna (DOB: 12 March 1948), Sp: Radio astronomy. National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, GMRT Project, Post Bag No. 3, Pune University Campus, Pune - 411 007. Tel (020) 357107, 356105 (O), 355087 (R), Fax 355149, 357257, Email : krishna @

Citation Dr Gopal has developed the relativistic-beam model to understand the cosmological evolution of linear sizes, and luminosity of radio galaxies and quasars, and their unification schemes, and has discovered galaxies and clusters at high redshifts.

1971 Iyengar, Padmanabha Krishnagopala (DOB : 29 June 1931), Sp: Nuclear physics; Solid state physics; Nuclear technology. 33, Saras Baug, Deonar, Mumbai - 400 088. Tel (022) 5563959, 5564702 (R), Fax 5563959, Email : skrishna @

Citation Dr Iyengar has built up at Trombay a group dealing with various aspects of neutron scattering completely based on locally designed and fabricated equipment. In this process, he has introduced widely recognized innovations in experimental techniques for neutron beam research and has made notable contributions to the basic understanding of vibrations of atoms in crystal lattices, internal motions of molecules and magnetic ordering and magnetic interactions in solids. He has promoted the growth of neutron crystallography and studies on the liquid state using neutrons. He is an acknowledged international authority on research reactor utilization.

1966 Jain, Suresh Chand (DOB : 1926), Sp: Semiconductor devices. IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B 3001 Leuven, Belgium.

Citation Dr Jain’s main field of research has been defects and colour centres in polar crystals; high temperature properties of solids; Raman infrared and electronic spectra of crystals; thin films; and ultrapurification of semiconductors and semiconductor devices. Some of the experimental techniques developed by. Dr Jain have been used in many laboratories in the United States and in West European countries. In recent years, Dr Jain has been involved in designing and developing sophisticated electronic items to meet the requirements of Armed Forces.

1998 Jayannavar, Arun Mallojirao (DOB: 22 July 1956) Sp : Condensed matter physics; Stochastic processes. Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar - 751 005. Tel (0674) 581158, 581203 (O), 581770 (R) Fax 581142, Email : jayan @; jayan @

Citation Dr Jayannavar has made outstanding and original contributions to a variety of problems in quantum transport, mesoscopic phenomena, disordered systems, tunnelling times and stochastic resonance. Along with his students he has approached a remarkably rich set of phenomena which is at the forefront of contemporary research in condensed matter physics.

1979 Jha, Sudhanshu Shekhar (DOB: 25 December 1940), Sp: Theoretical solid state physics; Superconductivity; Nonlinear optics; Photonics; Raman spectroscopy. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai - 400 005. Tel (022) 2152971, 2152680 (O),2152184 (R), Fax 2152110, 2152181, Email : ssjha @

Citation Prof. Jha has to his credit significant contributions in solid state and plasma physics. He did pioneering work on non-linear optics. He has made significant contributions to the application of theory of Raman scattering from electronic exs in solids to the study of resonant Raman scattering of an intense laser beam and to the investigation of ex and electron-hole sound exchange mechanisms for superconductivity in semi-metals and excitonic insulators. In plasma physics, Prof. Jha has contributed to the theory of interaction of waves in a plasma and the generation of laser-induced parametric instabilities, connected with the inertial confinement scheme for a thermonuclear fusion reactor.

1972 Joshi, Shri Krishna ((DOB: 6 June 1935), Sp: Solid state physics. Recruitment and Assessment Centre, DRDO, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi-110 054. Tel (011) 2944278, (O), 2942394 (R), Fax 2912690. Email : root @; drrac @

Citation Prof. Joshi has made important contributions in the areas of electronic states in disordered systems, electron correlation in narrow band solids and the related problem of Mott transition. He has proposed a number of models for the study of disordered materials; these models have been used to study the spectral functions and density of states for electrons in a number of binary alloys. He has also studied the problems of electrons in liquid metals and in amorphous semiconductors. He has studied exCitation and ionization processes in atoms, ions and molecules due to impact of charged projectiles, such as electrons and protons. These collision processes are of interest in the study of plasma confinement, astrophysical problems and the upper atmosphere.

1987 Kapahi, Vijay Kumar (DOB: 21 January 1944), Sp: Radio astronomy; Extragalactic radio sources; Cosmology. National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, P O Box 3, Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune - 411 007. Tel (020) 356105, 357107, 351384/5 (O), 355036 (R), Fax 357257, Email : vijay @

Citation Prof. Kapahi has done significant work on extragalactic radio sources and observational cosmology, in particular, structures of radio sources and angular size cosmology, structure of hot spots in extended radio galaxies and quasars. He is credited with discovery of steep-spectrum compact radio sources, and the phenomenon of relativistic beaming in quasar nuclei.

1983 Kapoor, Shyam Sunder (DOB: 14 June 1938), Sp: Nuclear physics; Accelerator physics; Energy dispersive X-ray analysis of materials; Heavy ion physics. Physics and E & I Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,Mumbai - 400 085. Tel (022) 5505296(O), 5567383 (R), Fax 5519613, Email : sskapoor

Citation Dr Kapoor has made significant experimental contributions to the field of fission and heavy ion physics. He has studied light charged particles emitted in fission to probe the characteristics of large scale nuclear motion. He has obtained important correlations between the fragment mass, charge and total kinetic energy in binary fission. He has established a new type of nuclear splitting process which proceeds on a fast time scale.

1986 Kaw, Predhiman Krishan (DOB: 15 January 1948), Sp: Nonlinear plasma theory. Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar - 382 428. Tel (079) 2864686 (O), 6741273, 6747574 (R), Fax 2864310, Email: kaw @

Citation Prof. Kaw has made vital contributions to our present understanding of (i) nonlinear collective effects in plasmas, especially those that are inertially and magnetically confined, and (ii) instabilities and current maintenance in tokamaks.

1958 Krishnan, Kariamanikkam Srinivasa (DOB: 4 December 1898), Sp: Molecular scattering of light; Magnetism related to physics; Physics and chemistry of crystalline solids.Expired.

Citation Dr Krishnan has carried out valuable researches in crystal physics, thermionics of metals and semiconductors, and generally in the physics of the solid state. His work on the lattice dynamics of ionic crystals is of fundamental significance.
Dr Krishnan’s investigation on the distribution of temperature along filaments and tubes electrically heated in vacuo have brought orderly thinking into a complex but practical subject, and made the way smooth for further advances in the field.

1988 Kumar, Deepak (DOB: 1 April 1946), Sp: Condensed matter physics; Statistical mechanics. School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi - 110 067. Tel (011) 6189701 (O), 6109903 (R), Fax 6865886, Email : deepak @

Citation Prof. Kumar has made significant contributions to condensed matter physics, especially to the theory of disordered magnetic systems. He was one of the first to realize and develop the idea of the fractal nature of spin clusters near the percolation threshold, and to predict experimentally observed consequences. His recent contributions to the theory of hierarchical systems bring out their novel features.

1985 Kumar, Narendra (DOB: 1 February 1940), Sp: Condensed matter physics; Localization in disordered Systems; High temperature superconductivity. Raman Research Institute, Bangalore - 560 080. Tel (080) 3311012 (O), 3410549 (R), Fax 3340492, Email : nkumar @

Citation Prof. Kumar has done important work in a wide range of areas in condensed matter physics, especially in the field of disordered systems. Particularly noteworthy are his stimulating ideas and results on configurational exCitations in glasses diffusion in dynamically disordered media and non- self averaging nature of electron transport in random systems.

1992 Kumar, Vikram (DOB: 8 July 1947), Sp: Semiconductor physics and technology. Solid State Physics Laboratory, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi - 110 054. Tel (011) 2942041, 2518930 (O), Fax 2913609, Email : iuk

Citation Dr Kumar has investigated electronic and optical properties of deep level defects in silicon and gallium arsenide and related materials and elucidated the nature of DX centres and EL2 defects.

989 Lakshmanan, Muthusamy (DOB: 25 March 1946), Sp: Theoretical physics; Non linear dynamics. Department of Physics & Centre for Nonlinear Dynamics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli - 620 024. Tel (0431) 660393, 660357 (O), 459386 (R), Fax 466840, 660245, Email: lakshman @

Citation Prof. Lakshmanan has done outstanding work in the area of nonlinear dynamical systems. He has pioneered the use of group theoretic and differential geometric methods exploiting among other Painleve, Lie and Lie-Backlund analyses for exploring integrability and the existence of chaotic regimes. He has shown remarkable ability in inventing unsuspected transformations and finding new variables to expose hidden structures. His work on solitons in one dimensional Heisenberg spin chains in well-known. Prof. Lakshmanan’s many faceted investigations in nonlinear dynamics have enriched the subject and have made a significant impact in the field.

1967 Lal, Devendra (DOB: 14 February 1929), Sp: Cosmic rays; Nuclear physics; Geophysics; Oceanography; Glaciology. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, GRD 0220. La Jolla, CA 92093-0220 USA. Tel (+1-619) 5342134 (O), 5871535 (R), Fax 5340784, Email : dlal @

Citation Dr Lal’s special interest in recent years has been in studying isotopic changes induced by cosmic rays on the earth and in extraterrestrial objects. He has extensively developed this broad area, which encompasses several fields in earth sciences and astrophysics. Utilizing sensitive low-level radiation counting techniques, radioisotopes produced by cosmic radiation in the earth’s atmosphere were detected and used as tracers for studies in meteorology, hydrology and oceanography. He has been responsible for setting up two laboratories at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research as national facilities, one for archaeological studies based on cosmic ray produced radiocarbon and the other for hydrological studies using natural and artificial tritium activity. He has shown that the results of studies of cosmic ray produced radioactivities in meteorites were indicative of the fact that cosmic ray intensity during the last few million years has been the same as it is today.
1989 Madhusudana, Nelamangala Vedavyasachar (DOB: 9 May 1944), Sp: Liquid crystals. Raman Research Institute, C V Raman Avenue, Bangalore - 560 080. Tel (080) 3311015, 3340124 (O), 3333407 (R), Fax 3340492, Email :

Citation Prof. Mudhusudana has made outstanding contributions to the physics of liquid crystals. He has observed a number of interesting phenomena for the first time including electromechanical coupling effects in cholesterics and curvature induced suppression of the smectic A phase. He has also made significant theoretical contributions on the importance of antiferroelectric correlations in smectics, relevance of flexoelectricity for a number of striking electrohydrodynamical instabilities and a molecular mechanism for the re-entrant nematic phase.

1976 Majumdar, Chanchal Kumar (DOB: 11 August 1938) Physics of condensed matter. S N Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, J D Block, Sector III, Salt Lake, Calcutta - 700 091. Tel (033) 3585709 (O), 3376073 (R), Fax 3343477, 3376290, Email :; ckm@

Citation Prof. Majumdar has done valuable work on problems of finite Heisenberg chains, critical parameters in phase transitions and positron annihilation. The calculations of effective magnetic moment, specific heat and other physical quantities for finite Heisenberg chains constitute important contribution. These calculations showed the existence of violation of the non-crossing and non-degeneracy rules. He has determined the critical parameters of ferromagnetic Ising model and gas-liquid transition. His work on positron annihilation has provided a theoretical basis for the measurement of the Fermi momentum of metals. His pioneering study of bound magnon states using techniques borrowed from scattering theory enables one to compute bound magnon states. Such bound magnon states were verified experimentally.

1991 Mathur, Deepak (DOB: 8 April 1952), Sp: Experimental atomic and molecular collision physics; Mass spectrometry. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai - 400 005. Tel (022) 2152971 Extn 2381 (O), 2151502 (R), Fax 2152110, Email : atmol1 @

Citation Dr Mathur has made experimental studies of low energy electronic and ionic collisions which explore the transformation of multi- particle collidants from one quantal state to another. For this purpose Dr Mathur has developed a state-of-the art energy spectrometric technique and various other related instrumentation in his laboratory. He has recently discovered a new class of isolated metastable multiply-charged molecular ions which dissociate much less rapidly than would be expected from the conventional perturbative single-particle theories of atomic collisions.

1960 Menon, Mambillikalathil Govind Kumar (DOB: 28 August 1928), Sp: Cosmic ray physics; Elementary particle high energy physics. C - 63, Tarang Apartments, 19, I P Extn., Mother Dairy Road, Delhi -110 092. Tel (011) 2725010 (R), Fax 6959456, Email : mgkmenon @

Citation Prof. Menon has made notable contributions with regard to the nuclear emulsion technique, and the physics of elementary particles, particularly strange particles. He has conducted significant cosmic ray investigations in India at high altitudes and at great depths underground. He, in collaboration with his colleagues, has demonstrated the existence of muons of varying energies, of monoenergetic high energy, pions and of electrons of varying energies, as secondaries in the decay of K-particles, thus establishing the Km 3, Kp 2 and Ke3 decay modes.

1968 Mitra, Ashesh Prosad (DOB: 21 February 1927), Sp: Studies on Ionosphere; Space research. National Physical Laboratory, Dr K S Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012. Tel (011) 5745298 (O), 6212218, 6474018, 6218531(R), Fax 5752678, 5714189, Email : apmitra @

Citation Dr Mitra is one of the acknowledged authorities on ionosphere and on some aspects of space research. His pioneering work on the use of cosmic radio noise for upper atmosphere studies resulted in a whole series of scientific discoveries in ionosphere, solar physics and cosmic rays. He has carried out comprehensive studies on the ionospheric effects of solar flares and has established one of the most extensive radio flare systems at the National Physical Laboratory. He developed an atmospheric model from observations of satellite drag and initiated new D region rocket experiments. Dr Mitra’s work on ion and neutral chemistry in the upper atmosphere, especially on the minor constituent nitric oxide, provided the basis for much of our present knowledge about the lower ionosphere. He has contributed substantially to the establishment and operation of the International Spacewarn System and the International Ursi-gramme and World Day Service.

1969 Mitra, Asoke Nath (DOB: 15 April 1929), Sp: Field theory (QCD) and quark physics; Particles and nuclei. 244, Tagore Park, Delhi - 110 009. Tel (011) 7444731 (R), Fax 7257336 (DU), Email: anmitra @; gamitra @

Citation Dr Mitra has done pioneering work on the nuclear three-body problem providing an exact solution in terms of separable potentials. This work of Dr Mitra has generated a good deal of interest in the nuclear physics world.

In the field of hadron physics, Dr Mitra showed the incompatibility of Fermi statistics for quarks with the observed monotonic behaviour of the proton form factor with momentum transfer. He gave a new classification of hadron resonances in terms of s-wave quark-quark forces, in conformity with the observed pattern of 56 (even) and 70 (odd) representations of the group SU(6) x 0(3), and their Regge recurrences. He has developed a comprehensive phenomenological theory of relativistic interactions of hadron resonances with vector and pseudoscalar mesons in terms of the quark model.

1980 Mukunda, Narasimhaiengar (DOB: 25 January 1939), Sp: Classical and quantum dynamic formalisms; Polarization optics. Centre for Theoretical Studies & Physics Department, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560 012. Tel (080) 3092266 (O), 3348657 (R), Fax 3341683, Email :

Citation Prof. Mukunda has made significant contributions to the study of symmetry structure in dynamics, in particular, of singular systems and to the representation theory of the Lorentz and Poincare groups. His work has clarified the inter-relationship between classical and quantum dynamics and is fundamental to the understanding of kinematical aspects of relativistic physical systems.

1975 Nag, Biswa Ranjan (DOB: 1 October 1932), Sp: Analog computers; Nonlinear oscillations; Microwave electronics; Solid state electronics; Electron transport. Institute of Radiophysics & Electronics, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Calcutta - 700 009. Tel (033) 3509115 (O), 3372696 (R), Fax 3515828, Email : brn @

Citation Dr Nag has done important work in the area of electrical transport phenomena in semiconductors. His work has enabled a better understanding of miniband parameters of semiconductor superlattices and magnetic quantization in nonparabolic energy bands. These studies have bearing on microwave semiconductor devices, which are important in the fields of microwave communications and radar.

1978 Narlikar, Jayant Vishnu (DOB: 19 July 1938), Sp: Cosmology; Theoretical astrophysics. Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, (IUCAA), Post Bag No. 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune University Campus, Pune - 411 007. Tel (020) 351414, 351513 (O) 350669 (R), Fax 350760, 356417, Email : jayant @

Citation Prof. Narlikar has proposed, together with Fred Hoyle, the conformal theory of gravity. He has investigated non-standard cosmologies based on this theory as well as the steady state model of the universe and thus made a significant contribution to astronomy. He gave the concept of white holes, and applied it to various explosive and transient phenomena in astrophysics.

1996 Padmanabhan, Thanu (DOB: 10 March 1957), Sp: Gravitation & Cosmology. Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, IUCAA, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune - 411 007. Tel (020) 359415, 351414 (O), 354922 (R), Fax 350760, Email : paddy @

Citation Dr Padmanabhan has made outstanding contributions in several areas of modern astrophysics and cosmology, notably in the fields of quantum gravity and structure formation in the universe. His work has provided a simple and consistent interpretation for the semiclassical limit of quantum cosmology based on the concept of decoherence. His recent work has led to a better understanding of nonlinear gravitational clustering in the formation of structure in the early universe.

1978 Raja Gopal, Erode Subramanian (DOB: 12 May 1936), Sp: Low temperature and high pressure phenomena; Condensed matter physics; Experimental techniques and instrumentation. Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560 012. Tel (080) 3092529 (O), 3347449 (R), Fax 3341683, 3342085, Email : gopal @

Citation Prof. Raja Gopal has contributed significantly to knowledge on the critical point phenomena in condensed matter with milli-degree control and fine resolution. This work led to the discovery of the breakdown of the rectilinear diameter law. His studies on the unusual behaviour of electrical resistivity bear out the universality of the non-equilibrium critical point phenomena.

1983 Rajaraman, Ramamurti (DOB: 11 March 1939), Sp: Elementary particle theory; Quantum field and body theory. School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi - 110 067. Tel (011) 6189701, 6107676 Extn 2785 (O), 6102035 (R), Fax 6165886, Email : doug @

Citation Prof. Rajaraman has had a consistent record of achievements in many areas of theoretical physics ranging from nuclear theory through statistical mechanics to particle physics and quantum field theory. His work on three and n-body clusters in nuclear matter and liquid He-3, and on nonperturbative methods in quantum field theory, is particularly well known. He has also shown great skill as an expositor of newly emerging concepts, such as solitons and instantons.

1965 Ramachandra, Rao Barry (DOB: 21 November 1922), Sp: Space physics and Ultrasonics. Flat No. 101, My home Madhuban, Srinagar Colony Road, Hyderabad - 400073.

Citation Prof. Ramachandra Rao has built up a flourishing school of research in ionosphere and radio physics. He has studied diffraction of light up to 400 Mc/sec, and verified the theoretical expectations. He has developed new and simple methods for measuring some of the physical parameters of diffusion and drift transistors, as also for studying ultrasonic velocity, absorption and their temperature variation in liquids and solids. He has studied exhaustively the characteristics of horizontal ionospheric winds over a sunspot cycle and obtained several new results.

1961 Ramachandran, Gopalasamudram Narayana (DOB: 8 October 1922), Sp: Molecular biophysics; Crystal physics; Mathematical philosophy. B-1, Navdeep Apartments, Navjot Complex, Near A-one School, Subhash Chowk, Memnagar, Ahmedabad - 380 052. Tel (079) 7437122

Citation Dr Ramachandran is internationally known for his contribution to the study of protein structure and in particular for his well-known triple - helical structure of collagen. Together with his colleagues, he has developed a number of new methods in X-ray crystallography, the most important of which is the so-called beta synthesis, finding increasing application in crystal structure analysis. He has established a recognized school of research in molecular biology at Madras University.

1982 Ramakrishnan, Tiruppattur Venkatachalamurti (DOB: 14 August 1941), Sp: Condensed matter physics; Statistical mechanics. Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560 012. Tel (080) 3092579, 3092581 (O), 3340591 (R), Fax 3341683, Email : tvrama @

Citation Prof. Ramakrishnan has done important work in the theory of liquid to solid transition and of mixed valence systems. His theory of freezing is a simple and quantitative treatment of the phenomenon as a first order structural transition in dense classical systems and has stimulated a lot of further work. He has made significant contributions to the well-known scaling theory of electron localization.

1963 Ramanna, Raja (DOB: 28 January 1925), Sp: Nuclear physics; Reactor physics and design. National Institute of Advanced Studies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560 012; 407 II Block, 9th Cross Road, Rabindranath Tagore Nagar, Bangalore - 560 032. Tel (080) 3344351, 3346594 (O), 3330815 (R), Fax 3346634 (O), 3434799 (R), Email : ramanna @; rr @

Citation Dr Ramanna is well known for his work on nuclear fission phenomena and neutron thermalization. Dr Ramanna has propounded a new theory of fission of heavy nuclei which explains many hitherto unconnected facts. He has played an active role in the design of the reactors at Trombay and is responsible for utilization of these reactors for researches in many fields.

1966 Ramaseshan, Sivaraj (DOB: 10 October 1923), Sp: Crystallography; Optics; Material science. Raman Research Institute, C V Raman Avenue, Bangalore - 560 080. Tel (080) 3311016 (O), 3369108 (R), Fax 3340492(O), 3342489 (R), Email : sivaraj @

Citation Dr Ramaseshan established a prominent school of research in the field of X-ray crystallography in India. His major work relates to anomalous scattering X-rays and neutrons and their application to the understanding of the structure of matter. This technique has been employed by him and others for elucidating the structures of many large molecules, including insulin Recently it has been extended to the study of stregthening mechanisms in solids and to the study of liquid and amorphous states. he was also associated with the development of instrumentation for high and low temperature X-ray crystallography.
In recent years, Dr Ramaseshan has been involved in the application of science to technology. He has also worked on composites and unconventional fabrication processing of materials.

1997 Raychaudhuri, Amitava (DOB: 17 March 1952), Sp: Supersymmetry; Z-boson physics; Higgs particles and astroparticle physics. Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Calcutta - 700 009. Tel (033) 3508386 (O), 4737519 (R), Fax 2486604, Email : amitava @

Citation Dr Raychaudhuri has made outstanding contributions to the physics, beyond and alternative, to the standard model of particle physics, including the processes involving supersymmetry and electroweak interactions with the right handed currents.

1994 Raychaudhuri, Arup Kumar (DOB: 1 March 1952), Sp: Experimental solid state physics; Instrumentation development; Cryogenics. National Physical Laboratory, Dr K S Krishnan Marg, New Delhi - 110 012 . Tel (011) 5741440, 5782721 (O), 5819726 (R), Fax 5752678, 5764189, Email : arup @

Citation Dr Raychaudhuri has done pioneering experimental work in the field of low temperature quantum transport in oxides near metal-insulator transition elucidating the interplay of disorder and interaction. For this and other tunneling studies, Dr Raychaudhuri has indigenously developed state-of-the-art low temperature scanning tunneling microscope and other related experimental facilities.

1987 Roy, Probir (DOB: 4 October 1942), Sp: Theoretical high energy particle physics. Theoretical Physics Group , Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai - 400 005. Tel (022) 2152971, 2152979 Extn 2432 (O), 2152611 (R), Fax 2152181, 2152110, Email : probir @

Citation Prof. Roy has made significant contributions in theoretical high energy physics, especially the phenomenology of deep inelastic lepton-hadron-photon processes, ultralight neutrinos in supersymmetric grand unified theories and of Higgs meson signals and mass limits in supergravity theories. His sum rule on two photon processes is important.

1981 Roy, Shasanka Mohan (DOB: 2 September 1941), Sp: High energy physics; Foundation of quantum theory. Theoretical Physics Group, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai - 400 005. Tel (022) 2152971 Extn 2215 (O), 2152757 (R), Fax 2152181, Email : shasanka @

Citation Dr Roy has done significant work on pion dynamics and high energy hadron interactions. His work on pion-pion dynamics that led to an integral equation , now known as Roy’s Equation, has revolutionized the subject and is fundamental to all subsequent work in the field. Dr Roy’s studies on high energy theorems and violations of Pomeranchuk theorem are important contributions.

1962 Sarabhai, Vikram Ambalal (DOB: 12 August 1919), Sp: Cosmic rays; Interplanetary phenomena. Expired.

Citation Prof. Sarabhai has worked on the astrophysical implicatios of cosmic ray time variations. Work done by him in collaboration with his students at the research stations established at Ahmedabad, Gulmarg, Kodaikanal, Trivandrum and Chacaltaya in Bolivia (South America) has led to the discovery of new solar relationships of cosmic ray variations. He has demonstrated the significance of the study of anisotropy, within the solar system, of cosmic rays from the galaxy. This led him to an accurate experimental study of the variations of a few parts in a thousand which occur in the cosmic ray intensity arriving on the earth. He uses these cosmic ray variations to probe the electromagnetic state of the earth and thus to study the emission of a plasma wind from the sun and the configuration and movements of magnetic fields in the solar systems.

1980 Satyamurthy, Nivrathi Suryanarayanashastry (DOB 5 February 1936) Sp:Neutron scattering.. Expired.

Citation Dr Satyamurthy has done pioneering work using thermal neutron beams to study magnetic materials. He set up neutron spectrometer facilities and used them to study ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic materials. He elucidated the magnetic structures of a number of alloy systems. Dr Satyamurthy’s exhaustive neutron diffraction work on ferrites led to the discovery of the non-collinear spin structure, also known as Yafet-Kittel type of ferrimagnetism. He developed the polarized neutron technique for structure and spin density measurements in magnetite and a number of other compounds and alloys.

1994 Sen, Ashoke (DOB: 15 July 1956), Sp: Theoretical Physics; High energy physics. Mehta Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad - 211 019. Tel (0532) 667511 Extn. 2002 (O), 667511 Extn 4002 (R), Fax 667576, Email : sen @

Citation Dr Sen has done pioneering work which established the connection between string theory and the conformally-in-variant field theories and for his recent work on the strong-weak duality which is an important breakthrough and provides a basis for further work in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories.

1984 Shashidhar, Ranganathan (DOB: 1 January 1946), Sp: High pressure physics; Liquid crystals. Centre for Biomedical Science & Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC 20375 - 5320 USA. Tel (+1-202) 4046005 (O), (+1-703) 8665034 (R), Fax 4048426, Email : rns @

Citation Prof. Shashidhar has made significant contributions to experimental physics of liquid crystals, especially at high pressures. He has studied a variety of new phenomena like re-entrant polymorphism, and universality of multi-critical points, which are of considerable significance in modern condensed matter physics.

1992 Shenoy, Subodh Raghunath (DOB: 16 October 1947), Sp: Condensed matter theory. Condensed Matter Group, International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste- 34100, Italy. Tel ( + 39 -040) 2240111 (O), 4211286 (R), Fax 224163, Email : shenoy @

Citation Dr Shenoy has contributed to generalizing topological defect-mediated phase transitions to three dimensions, proposed a vortex dynamics and considered decay kinetics of metastability, leading to definitive predictions confronting experiments.

1993 Simon, Rajiah (DOB: 4 August 1948), Sp: Optical physics; Group Theory. Institute of Mathematical Sciences, CIT Campus, Taramani, Chennai - 600 113. Tel (044) 2351856 (O), 4413270 (R), Fax 2350586, Email : simon @

Citation Dr Simon has made outstanding contributions to topological phases; vectorial theory of beams; Gouy effect for squeezed light and applications of group theoretical ideas to optical problems.

1985 Singh, Kehar (DOB: 3 July 1941), Sp: Photonics, Applied optics. Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi - 110 016. Tel (011) 6857784, Fax 6862037, Email : kehars @

Citation Prof. Singh has done significant work in applied optics, in particular, on coherent & partially coherent imaging of diffuse objects and incoherent imaging. His work has direct applications in the areas of adaptive optics, holography, optical testing and microlithography.

1973 Singh, Virendra (DOB: 8 June 1938), Sp: Theoretical physics; High energy physics; Nonlinear dynamics. Theoretical Physics Group, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai - 400 005. Tel (022) 2152796, 2152971 Extn 2260 (O), 2152269 (R), Fax 2152181, 2152110, Email : vsingh @

Citation Dr Singh has made significant contributions in respect of various theories connected with particle physics, particularly formulation of the analytic S-matrix theory, elucidation of exact results from such formulations, and symmetry theories of hadrons, and the use of such concepts for calculations on scattering amplitudes. These theories and calculations have thrown light on the recent experimental data on high energy total cross-sections in hadronic processes.

1974 Sinha, Krityunjai Prasad (DOB: 5 July 1929), Sp: Condensed matter physics, Theoretical physics. Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560 012. Tel (080) 3092725 (O), 3345553 (R), Email : sinha @

Citation Dr Sinha has made vital contributions to theoretical solid state physics, particularly in the area of crystal magnetism. His work has added considerably to our knowledge of the mechanism of exchange and other interactions in solids in relation to transport properties and the origin of giant moments; and also to excitonic and electronic phase transitions in doped semiconductors. His proposal of the non-equilibrium mechanism with regard to high temperature superconductivity has been of considerable theoretical and experimental values.

1974 Sodha, Mahendra Singh (DOB: 8 February 1932), Sp: Plasmas; Semiconductors; Optics;Energy. B 113, Nirala Nagar, Lucknow - 226 020. Tel (0522) 380009 (R)

Citation Prof. Sodha has made important theoretical contributions in the broad area of interaction of fields with matter. His work on self-focussing in plasmas is significant with possible important applications in laser fusion. Following a new approach, he has obtained interesting results on self-focussing in optical fibres which will be useful for optical communication. He has made important theoretical contributions in the field of harmonic generation in plasmas and semiconductors. His work on plasmas has a bearing on magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) power generation.

1990 Sood, Ajay Kumar (DOB: 26 June 1951), Sp: Condensed matter physics; Light scattering; Superlattices and Super conductors. Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560 012. Tel (080) 3092725 (O), 3373963 (R), Fax 3341683, Email : asood @

Citation Prof. Sood has, through his experiments on the colloidal aqueous suspension of charged polystyrene balls with tunable interaction, obtained results on the types of short and intermediate range order possible in condensed matter, including the glassy state. His other major area of activity has been the study of confined and interface optical phonons in semiconductor superlattices.

1981 Srinivasan, Ramanujan (DOB: 21 April 1938), Sp: Magnetic resonance phenomena. Expired.

Citation Prof. Srinivasan developed novel experimental techniques to study magnetic resonance phenomena at high pressures and low temperatures. Using ESR, NMR and ENDOR techniques, he established unequivocally the role played by hydrogen atoms and ammonium ions in ferroelectric systems. His contributions to the study of phase transitions and magnetic interactions in solids are very significant.

1988 Srivastava, Onkar Nath (DOB: 31 December 1942), Sp: Condensed matter physics; Material science; Energy materials; Thin films. Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005. Tel (0542) 317468 (O), 361937 (R), Fax 317468, 317074, Email : ons @

Citation Prof. Srivastava has distinguished himself through his work on local structural variation in high temperature oxide superconductors, growth, characterization and application of hydrogen storage materials.
1970 Vainu Bappu, Manali Kallat (DOB: 10 August 1927), Sp: Astrophysics Expired.

Citation In collaboration with Wilson, Dr Vainu Bappu showed that there is a unique relationship between the width of the ionized calcium K emission line and the absolute luminosity of a star. More recently, he has made significant contributions towards a proper understanding of this phenomenon, which has now come to be known as the Wilson-Bappu effect. His other noteworthy results relate to topics such as the behaviour of sodium emission in comets near perihelion passage as influenced by solar wind effects and the nature and growth of magnetic fields associated with the appearance of sunspots in active regions of the sun.
1964 Verma, Ajit Ram (DOB: 20 September 1921), Sp: Crystal growth; Optical interferometry; X-ray diffraction; Defects in Crystalline solids. 160, Deepali, Pitampura, New Delhi - 110 034.Tel (011) 5782721 (O), 7023574 (R)

Citation Dr Verma has made significant experimental contributions towards the theory of growth, in particular, the dislocation theory of crystal growth. He is credited with precise measurement of the molecular steps of the growth spirals by the application of Tolansky’s multiple-beam interferometric methods and correlating these with the X-ray unit cell size. Dr Verma has also conducted experimental work on polytypism, and optical and X-ray diffraction methods.

1976 Vijayaraghavan, Ramanuja (DOB: 3 January 1931), Sp: Solid state physics; Magnetism; Material science; Superconductivity. Indian Institute of Technology Campus, Powai, Mumbai - 400 076. Tel (022) 2152971, 5784694 (O), 7667554 (R), Fax 2152110,5783254, Email : rv @

Citation Dr Vijayaraghavan has made significant contributions in the study of metals and alloys by the nuclear magnetic resonance technique. His studies on the oscillatory character of conduction, electron polarisation in rare earth alloys, Kondotype behaviour in concentrated cerium alloys, and crystal field effects on the magnetism and the hyperfine fields in samarium alloys are well known. Dr Vijayaraghavan and his group are working on spin glasses, Heusler alloys and other magnetic materials.